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Egypt, already the most populous country in the Arab world, hit a new milestone on 6 December 2015, when the country’s domestic population reached 90 millions. The increasing population has strained the resources of the populous Arab state. Many Egyptians live in difficult conditions, with the infrastructure of the country failing to match the increase in population, especially in rural areas. A shocking report released by CAPMAS near the end of 2015 found that three-quarters of 4,655 Egyptian villages surveyed lacked sewage systems…
Sudan is a poor country, despite its potential resources. Sudan’s economy is basically agricultural, with inadequate infrastructure and ridden by civil wars and social and ethnic conflict. The government is attempting to develop non-petroleum sources of revenues, such as gold mining, while carrying out an austerity programme to reduce expenditures.
The material conditions under which the Arabs lived began to improve around 1000 BCE. A method for saddling camels had been developed for transporting large loads. The camel was the only animal that could cross large tracts of barren land with any reliability. The Arabs could now benefit from some of the trade that had previously circumvented Arabia. One was the rise of cities that could service the trains of camels traversing the desert. The most prosperous of these – such as Petra, in Jordan, and Palmyra, in Syria – were relatively close to markets in the Mediterranean region,the most important of these was Mecca, which owed its prosperity also to certain shrines in the area visited by Arabs from throughout the peninsula.