With the introduction of satellite television technology in the late 1980s, Omanis became exposed to a greater choice of media outlets and satellite channels soon became significantly more popular than the state-owned Omani broadcasts. Oman’s media environment became even more diverse in 1997, when the government allowed the sale of foreign newspapers and magazines that had previously been considered critical of Oman or the sultan.
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Egypt’s post-2011 media experience both under elected Islamist President Mohamed Morsi (2012-2013) and even more so after army commander general Abdel Fattah al-Sisi took power in 2013, has been characterized by harsh restrictions upon freedom of expression and a return to a culture of enforced obedience in the print and television industries.
In what seemed to be the final push to gain control of Aleppo, regime forces and their allies intensified their attacks on 15 November 2016, launching a fierce aerial bombardment and missile strikes from the Russian aircraft carrier stationed off the coast. This was followed by a major ground assault. Backed by Russian warplanes, pro-regime forces advanced rapidly into territory that had been in rebel hands since 2012.
After the 2011 revolution and the ouster of the Gaddafi regime, the transitional government opted to abolish the main newspapers of the Gaddafi era and establish new ones. Private print publications, websites, television and radio stations began to emerge rapidly in this new era of media openness. However, the country’s subsequent civil war and ongoing conflicts have led to a chaotic media environment.
Until the 1950s, the main purpose of education in the Gulf was to preserve and transmit traditional culture and religion. When petro-development kicked in, there were simply insufficient native human resources to do the job. The regional leaders found that this could not go on forever, and Western-style education entered the classrooms.