The Berbers strategize and react to their marginalization in different ways, according to the realities of their local and national environment. In general, however, they seek a re-examination of what constitutes their countries’ collective identities and how the historical and socio-political roles of Berbers in the construction of North Africa can be highlighted. They also demand social justice and the improvement of their social status, especially in rural areas, which are characterized by high rates of poverty.
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Today, Shiites are divided into numerous sects, the largest being Twelver Shiism. Shiites make up the majority of the population in Iran, Iraq, Bahrain and Azerbaijan; and they constitute significant minorities in Lebanon, Yemen, Syria, Turkey, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, India, Nigeria and Tanzania.
Following the fall of the regime, rap exploded. Rap was featured in patriotic songs, political shows and even a yoghurt commercial. The country was experiencing a wave of freedom of expression, and rappers, like many other artists, used it to express themselves without any noticeable objection from the authorities.
Mohammed VI’s role has several religious, social, political/diplomatic, economic and psychological aspects. The king is known for advancing efforts to help the poor, which has greatly enhanced his popularity.However, he is facing important challenges, particularly the status of Western Sahara, widespread poverty, social inequalities, Youth unemployment and corruption.
A thaw between Israel and Saudi Arabia relations would thus mark a major shift in the Arab-Israeli conflict. Thus, Saudi Arabia has developed clandestine business deals with Israeli companies in recent years, especially in security and intelligence. Israeli media reports have also claimed that the Israel Defense Forces has offered Saudi Arabia Iron Dome military technology to defend Saudi territory from Yemeni rockets.
Most observers agree that the tiny kingdom is building up its army to continue to offset the influence of Iran while acting as a bulwark against Islamist and jihadist insurgents. But Ibish suggests that the UAE’s more weaponized approach to politics is part of a wider ambition to determine its own fate in a region that has become increasingly destabilized since the Arab Spring.
An open appeal addressed primarily to the king by journalists, intellectuals and artists sought to calm the situation in the Rif region. The appeal, which was circulated on Facebook, called on the king to intervene ‘directly or indirectly to reassure public opinion, using the language of productive dialogue and positive interaction and to ensure that the promises made are kept.
The 21st-century Turkish media environment is steadily worsening. Moreover, during Recep Tayyip Erdoğan’s tenure as prime minister (2003-2014) and now president – and particularly since the 2016 failed coup attempt and subsequent state of emergency – journalists have been subjected to increasing harassment, intimidation and arrest in a government bid to ensure a more compliant press.