The gas discoveries, notably Zohr, are changing the country’s economic prospects. Egypt started to limit its orders for LNG shipments in 2017 and those planned for 2018. By early 2019, it hopes to break even, and in the years after it plans to become a net gas exporter again. However, The gas discoveries may solve Egypt’s immediate cash crisis, but it will take more to build a resilient economy.
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The United Nations (UN) estimates that in the short term, rebuilding will cost at least $1 billion. Lisa Grande, the United Nations Development Programme’s resident representative in Iraq, said it will take about $470 million to restore basic infrastructure including the power, water and sewer systems and to rehabilitate hospitals, schools and houses in the neighbourhoods with the most severe damage in western Mosul. At least another $237 million is needed for the more lightly damaged districts in western Mosul and a further $370 for rebuilding in eastern Mosul.
Chahed’s war on corruption is ongoing and he has made him popular among Tunisians. Once considered weak and ineffective, he is now seen by many as paving the way for the next big electoral meeting, the presidential election of 2019. If he is able to improve the country’s economy and maintain national security, he will be well placed to succeed.
During his campaign, Rouhani promised to open up the political space and adopt a rational foreign policy. Raisi primarily focused on pro-poor economic programmes. In many ways, his visions and ideas echoed those of the supreme leader: anti-Western sentiment, social conservatism and a ‘revolutionary’ approach to both the economy and foreign policy.
Qatar adopted an ‘open foreign policy’, relying mostly on soft power tools such as the media, diplomacy, economy, humanitarian aid and generous donations. Doha’s strategy was to maintain good relations with all of its neighbours, regardless of their contradictory policies towards each other, notably Iran and Saudi Arabia. However, it maintained ties with several of the West’s adversaries, including Iran, Hezbollah, Hamas and the Muslim Brotherhood.