Results for Tag: Anatolia

26 results found.
After Failed Coup, Turkey’s Military Emerges Stronger

Turks are no strangers to military intervention in politics. Since the country transitioned to multi-party democracy in 1950, the military has directly interrupted the democratic process four times (1960, 1971, 1980 and 1997), with as many failed attempts.

From Friend to Foe: Fethullah Gülen

“Et tu, Brute?” (“You too, Brutus?”) were purportedly the last words of the Roman dictator Julius Caesar, when he was assassinated with a knife by his friend Marcus Brutus. This famous quotation from one of the most infamous assassinations in history is often used for unexpected betrayals. President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of Turkey didn’t use […]

From Antiquity to the ‘Turkist’ Movement

During the 6th and 5th centuries BCE Anatolia fell under the control of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. In 334 BCE it was conquered by Alexander the Great. After his death in 323 BCE Anatolia was split up in a series of small Hellenistic kingdoms. They in turn were became part of the Roman Republic by the mid-1st century BCE, later of the Roman Empire.

Emergence of the Turkish State

The Treaty of Sèvres, signed in 1920, imposed on what was left of the Ottoman Empire the demilitarization of Istanbul and the creation of an independent Armenia and envisaged the creation of an independent Kurdistan and the assignment of Izmir to temporary Greek administration.

Modern literature

The history of modern literature can be divided into two periods separated by a wide gap corresponding to the Kemalist era, which produced only a few important works. The first period covers the last decades of the 19th century, which can be called, according to famous writer Ahmed Hamdi Tanpınar (1901-1962) and sociologist Hilmi Ziya Ülken (1901-1974) ‘the rift’.


The first Ottoman museum, created in 1807, was reserved to the sultan until it was opened to the public in 1839. Many cities have museums, but the most important are the Aya Sofya (or Hagia Sophia), the Istanbul Archaeological Museum, and the Turkish and Islamic Arts Museum in Istanbul, and the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations (under renovation) in Ankara. Historical sites such as Ephesus and Miletus have their own museums.


To understand the variety of architectural styles in Turkey, we can begin with the pre-Islamic heritage, of which Hagia Sophia (or Aya Sofya) (built in 532-537) and the current Kariye Museum (Church of the Holy Saviour in Chora, built in 534) are among the finest examples. The architecture of the Seljuk Turks, which is rather modest, is to be seen in many cities in the Central Anatolia region. Ottoman architecture, known for its grandeur and exemplified by the works of the famous architect Mimar Sinan (1489-1588), continues these legacies but exceeds them in scale and ambition.


The situation of women in Turkey is a paradox that cannot be explained solely by patriarchal family structures or the status of women in Islam, or, conversely, by the emancipation of women under the Kemalist state: women are omnipresent in skilled occupations, at a rate of 30-40 percent (e.g., doctors and scientists), but they are mostly absent from the middle- and lower-class workforce.

Music and dance

Music in Turkey is varied, including an old double tradition of türkü (folk songs) and şarki (lit. ‘Eastern’, light songs, often for the court). Considered degenerate and of Byzantine or Arabic origin, these songs were banned between 1934 and 1943. They have gained great popularity in the last few decades, not as the ‘authentic’ genre appreciated by the elite, but as the arabesque genre, combining traditional, Westernized popular instrumental styles. Singers such as Orhan Gencebay (born 1944) and İbrahim Tatlıses (born 1952), who are popular with the public, are two stars of fusion music.